There are five basic pillars in Islam: Testifying that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing prayer, paying zakat, fasting the month of Ramadan, and performing Hajj whenever one is able to do so. It is the duty of every Muslim to adhere to these five pillars.
zakat in islam is the third pillar of Islam that commands a person to give alms and give a portion of the money to the poor and needy. zakat in islam rules is a mandatory charitable act that aims to support the poorest groups in society. Because donating money to the poor purifies the wealth of the rich and suffices the poor and their families to meet their basic needs.
What is the definition of Zakat?
zakat in islam has several definitions in language and terminology, as it is given different meanings in language. Among them are growth, increase, and purity. Because it purifies the one who gives it from sins, just as zakat in islam rules is called charity.
Because it indicates the sincerity of the Muslim in his servitude and obedience to Allah Almighty, and it is also used to refer to blessing, praise, and righteousness, and these linguistic meanings are represented in the noble verse: (خُذ مِن أَموالِهِم صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُم وَتُزَكّيهِم بِها).
In terminology, zakat in islam is defined as: It is the specific amount that a Muslim must pay from his wealth that reaches the quorum to deserving parties and under certain conditions. We find that jurists have several definitions of zakat in islam;
- The Hanafi school of thought said: “It is the ownership of a specific portion of a specific property to a specific person appointed by the Lawgiver for the sake of Allah Almighty.”
- The Malikis defined it as: “releasing a specific portion of specific money that reaches a quorum for its recipient if ownership is complete, and it is not mined or cultivated.”
- As for the Shafi’is, they defined it as: “a name for what is taken out of money or body in a specific way.”
- The last definitions of zakat in islam we find in the Hanbalis, when they said: “It is an obligatory right on money designated for a specific group at a specific time.”
By going through the various definitions, we find that they share in considering zakat in islam as ownership of money that has reached the quorum. That is, the money no longer belongs to its owner after it is taken out of his possession.
But rather enters the possession of the person to whom zakat in islam was paid, and the word “deserving of zakat” confirms the entitlement of the person to whom zakat was paid this money.
The ruling on zakat in Islam and the time of its obligation
zakat in islam rules is considered one of the five pillars of Islam, and under certain conditions it becomes an individual obligation for a Muslim, and whoever meets the conditions for the obligation of zakat in islam must pay it immediately without delay.
Its hypothesis has been proven by the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and consensus, and based on that, ignorance of it is not excused. Evidence of its confirmation is in the Holy Qur’an, the verse mentioned above, and in the Sunnah of the Prophet.
The advice of the Prophet – may Allah bless him and grant him peace – to Muadh bin Jabal when he sent him to Yemen, and said to him: (Inform them that Allah has imposed on them charity in their wealth, to be taken from their rich and given to their poor).
importance of zakat in islam was imposed early in the second year of the Hijra, which is the same time that fasting was imposed, although there is a dispute over which of them was imposed first. As for the place where zakat in islam is due, was it in Mecca or Medina?
Most of the statements of scholars indicate that zakat was imposed in Mecca. As for the determination of the shares, zakat funds, and those entitled to zakat, it was revealed in Medina.
What are the conditions for zakat?
zakat in islam rules is of great importance, which led to the existence of a law for zakat and strict conditions for it. The conditions for the obligation of zakat in islam are:
- Islam: zakat in islam is only obligatory on a Muslim, it is not accepted from an infidel.
- Freedom: zakat in islam is not obligatory on the slave, because he does not own anything.
- Halal: The money must be halal.
- Complete ownership: The money is completely owned by its owner.
- Growth: The money is growing or can be increased, such as livestock that reproduce and crops that bear fruit.
- One year: A full Hijri year has passed since the money was acquired. This condition applies to all types of zakat funds, except for crops and fruits, which are due upon harvest.
- Surplus over the original needs: It must be from money that is surplus to the original and necessary needs such as food, drink, clothing, housing, and everything necessary for living.
- Nisab: possession and reaching the quorum, and varies according to the type of zakat money.
- The money should not be in debt.
importance of zakat in islam
zakat in islam rules is necessarily a known matter in religion. zakat in islam is one of the pillars of the economic system in Islam. To indicate its importance and hypothesis: It was mentioned in connection with the pillar of religion – prayer – in approximately thirty places, as in His saying – the Almighty -: (وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ).
Allah Almighty praised His servants who performed the obligatory prayers and zakat, and considered this evidence of the sincerity of their faith and submission to Allah Almighty, and linked it to true belief in the Last Day, as in His saying – the Most High -: (الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ)
The wisdom of the legality of zakat
zakat in islam is of great importance as follows:
1-Allah – Glory be to Him, the Most High – has decreed, in His wisdom and justice, varying destinies for His servants, and from this disparity is their difference in livelihood and livelihood, but – Glory be to Him, the Most High – He has given the less well-off a right to the wealth of the more well-off, and gives it to the poor as a right, not as charity and voluntary work.
2-There are also benefits in zakat in islam for the person giving the zakat. The benefits of zakat in islam are not limited to the poor, but rather benefit the person who pays the zakat and his wealth. It purifies its owner from misdeeds and transgressions in the afterlife, and from miserliness, miserliness, and greed in this world.
3-Through zakat in islam rules, Allah – Glory be to Him – refines the possessive instinct in man by forcing him to give out the money that he was created with out of love voluntarily and in servitude to Allah – Glory be to Him – Zakat develops the wealth of the giver, blesses it, protects it from pests, and also develops faith in the heart of its owner.
4-zakat in islam represents a preventive system that works to prevent many problems in society. For example, zakat in islam prevents many crimes related to theft, plunder, and burglary. This is because it purifies the soul of the poor person from hatred and hatred towards society, especially after receiving his right from the wealth of the rich person.
5-importance of zakat in islam also limits the massive inflation of wealth, which may lead to the monopoly of money by a certain group of society. Which leads to extending its control and influence over the entire society in order to increase its wealth without regard to the interests of the rest of the parties in society,
Types of zakat
In addition to importance of zakat in islam, there are a number of types of zakat in islam on which a Muslim must pay zakat, which are:
1-Zakat on money
zakat in islam must be paid on money, whether it is minted or minted. It is done by dividing the total amount of zakat by 40. Let us assume that the amount of zakat is $100,000. Zakat is calculated as follows: 100,000/40 = $2,500.
2-Zakat on gold
Gold and silver are among the types of zakat in islam that Allah Almighty has commanded us to pay. Among the conditions under which zakat is due on gold and silver are:
- It must reach the quorum, which is equivalent to 85 grams of pure 24 karat gold. If it is less than that, zakat is not obligatory on it until we return it to its original state.
- The year must pass over him, which is a full lunar year.
- Full ownership, and that it belongs to a free Muslim.
3-Zakat on crops and fruits
The quorum for which zakat in islam rules is due on fruits and crops is five wastes according to the measure of the measure, and one wasq is sixty saa’s, and a saa’ is equal to two kilos and forty grams of good wheat.
The vessel that is filled with this amount of wheat is a saa’, so the quorum is three hundred saa’s, and the amount that must be paid is half. The tithe, if the irrigation is at a cost, and if it is at no cost, such as irrigation with rain water, then the tithe must be paid, i.e. a tenth of the crop, if it reaches the quorum.
4-Zakat on assets
Utilized assets include anything rented for profit, such as residential buildings, equipment, or transportation. It also includes producing animals such as sheep for wool, cows for milk, or bees for honey. Liquid assets are commodities that can be sold easily, usually for profit.
zakat in islam is due only once in the zakat year, and all other zakat conditions apply to any other money on which zakat is due. The share is part of the company’s capital, and the owner of the share is considered a partner in the company.
That is, the owner of a part of its funds in the ratio of the number of his shares to the total shares of the company. Therefore, if he takes his shares to buy and sell them, the zakat due on them is a quarter of a tenth (2.5%) of the market value on the day zakat is due, like all other trading offers.
5-Zakat on pension and saved money
zakat in islam rules is obligatory if the money saved from the salary reaches the quorum, and one year has passed. As for the saved money deposited in the bank, if it reaches the quorum and its amount is equivalent to the value of 85 grams of gold, and a Hijri – lunar year has passed since this money – then zakat on the money is paid at the rate of 2.5%.
At the conclusion of the article, zakat in islam is the third pillar of Islam, and zakat in islam rules was imposed for the sake of a sublime rule, including introducing justice and equality in society between both the rich and the poor. importance of zakat in islam also has special provisions related to it, so we explained within our paragraphs all the provisions of zakat.